Computational and modelling approaches in dry powder inhaler product design

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Introduction            

For the last twenty years, there has been significant research interest in the development and formulation of dry powder inhaler (DPI) aerosols for the therapy of lung and systemic disease. DPIs have attracted attention due to the flexibility for aerosolization and delivery of high drug payloads, including inhaled proteins and antibiotic products [1,2]. There is also intensive interest in developing bioequivalent (generic) DPI products, and the drive to develop equivalent products has been pivotal to advancing our understanding of DPI formulation science and device design engineering. Particle science and inhaled medicine development have benefited from the application of many newly-advanced, sensitive analytical methodologies that reveal with impressive resolution the fundamental colloidal science in inhaled formulations. As a result of the generation of these data, a variety of process and product modelling approaches have emerged. The INFORM 2020 consortium was formed in partnership between five UK universities, pharmaceutical companies and technology specialists to develop modelling approaches that improve our understanding drug product development from molecular scales up to inhaler manufacture.